Read e-book online A History of the French Language PDF

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By Peter Rickard

This well-established and well known e-book presents scholars with all of the linguistic heritage they want for learning any interval of French literature. For the second one variation the textual content has been revised and up to date all through, and the 2 ultimate chapters on modern French, and its place as an international language, were thoroughly rewritten. beginning with a short description of the Vulgar Latin spoken in Gaul, and the earliest recorded varieties of French, Peter Rickard strains the advance of the language during the later heart a while and Renaissance to teach the way it grew to become standardized in a close to smooth shape within the 17th and eighteenth centuries.

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It was in fact precisely because there was so much internal unrest in France that the Norsemen, who had begun by merely attacking shipping in the English Channel, were soon able to raid the northern and north-eastern coasts in depth, with comparative impunity. F. epic Gormont et Isembart. In the north of France, the normal processes of agriculture and harvest were often grievously disrupted, and severe famine was by no means rare. The area of north-west France (then known as Neustria) which suffered most and which was occupied by Vikings in large numbers was eventually ceded to them in 911 by Charles the Simple and took, from the Norsemen, its present name Normandy.

Scholars specially invited from Ireland and England, where the classical tradition had been better preserved, also helped to raise the standard of Latinity. The reforms of Charlemagne had the effect of restoring much of the purity of Classical Latin in such matters as spelling and grammar, and this, from the point of view of anyone who seeks information about the spoken language of the day, is a doubtful blessing, for it means that the written documents tell us even less about the realities of everyday speech than they did before.

Iusu from deorsum in the same text). To explain why the written Latin of the end of the eighth century and early ninth was singularly unsuited to throw light on the major changes discussed earlier, it is necessary to mention the Carolingian reforms of the late eighth century. Charlemagne, by far the greatest and most enlightened of the later Carolingian kings, decreed that there should be schools of young clerks (lectores) in every monastery and in every bishop’s house. As a result, the number of trained and literate priests increased very considerably.

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A History of the French Language by Peter Rickard

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