By Perminder Sachdev
This quantity offers the 1st finished account of the medical and medical elements of akathisia and similar syndromes akin to stressed legs syndrome (RLS), other kinds of motor restlessness, and neuroleptic-induced dysphoria. the focus is on drug-induced akathisia and its a variety of subtypes. the writer explores its courting to the restlessness because of different neurological problems, provides a brand new synthesis of the pathophysiological mechanisms of akathisia, and offers arguments for brand spanking new operational standards for the examine prognosis of drug-induced akathisia. innovations for the dimension of akathisia also are mentioned, as are therapy techniques. The booklet can be fairly necessary for psychiatrists, neurologists, and different physicians looking a greater figuring out of those disabling syndromes.
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Additional info for Akathisia and Restless Legs
Some earlier studies (eg, Hordern, 1965; Rosenthal and Klerman, 1966; Rosenthal and Gudeman, 1967) demonstrated a significant positive loading for endogeneity, while others reported a weak relationship (Hamilton and White, 1959; Kiloh and Garside, 1963; Carney et al, 1965) and even a negative loading (Mendels and Cochrane, 1968). These differences were partly explained on the basis of the relationship of agitation to sex, with 30 Introduction studies that included only women showing a clear positive loading of agitation on the endogeneity factor (Mendels and Cochrane, 1968).
It is generally accepted that boys are five to nine times more likely to be diagnosed as being 'hyperactive' than girls (Weiss and Hechtman, 1979). If the restlessness is characterized by reckless behaviour, low frustration tolerance, irritability and temper tantrums and is associated with behaviours that break basic rules or violate the rights of others, conduct disorder is diagnosed. Schachar et al (1981) reported that 3% of boys in a semirural area had this problem. Rutter et al (1975) reported that the rates in an inner-city area were twice as high.
Mehrabian and Williams (1969), on the other hand, suggested that the behaviours may be differentially related to anxiety and neuroticism, with some becoming more apparent during periods of relaxation and social interaction, which may explain the inconsistencies in the literature. One may conclude from these studies that while some nervous habits, when present in excess, may indicate anxiety and neuroticism, many commonly observed behaviours do not show this relationship with any consistency. The jitteriness syndrome This syndrome was reported in some patients with panic disorder who were treated with tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) (Zitrin et al, 1978, 1980; Pohl et al, 1988) and comprised restlessness, trouble sitting still, 'shakiness inside', insomnia, increased energy and an increase in anxiety.
Akathisia and Restless Legs by Perminder Sachdev