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By National Research Council, Division on Earth and Life Studies, Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate, Committee on America's Climate Choices

ISBN-10: 0309145856

ISBN-13: 9780309145855

Weather switch is going on. it's very most likely attributable to the emission of greenhouse gases from human actions, and poses major hazards for a number of human and usual structures. And those emissions proceed to extend, so one can bring about additional swap and larger hazards. America's weather offerings makes the case that the environmental, financial, and humanitarian hazards posed through weather switch point out a urgent desire for mammoth motion now to restrict the value of weather switch and to arrange for adapting to its affects. even supposing there's a few uncertainty approximately destiny hazard, performing now will decrease the dangers posed by means of weather swap and the strain to make higher, extra fast, and very likely dearer mark downs later. so much activities taken to minimize vulnerability to weather swap affects are logic investments that would supply defense opposed to typical weather diversifications and severe occasions. furthermore, an important funding judgements made now approximately apparatus and infrastructure can "lock in" commitments to greenhouse gasoline emissions for many years to come back. eventually, whereas it can be attainable to cut back or opposite many responses to weather switch, it truly is tough or most unlikely to "undo" weather swap, as soon as manifested. present efforts of neighborhood, kingdom, and private-sector actors are very important, yet not really to yield development such as what should be accomplished with the addition of robust federal regulations that determine coherent nationwide objectives and incentives, and that advertise powerful U.S. engagement in international-level reaction efforts. The inherent complexities and uncertainties of weather switch are top met by means of utilizing an iterative hazard administration framework and making efforts to noticeably decrease greenhouse fuel emissions; arrange for adapting to affects; put money into medical examine, know-how improvement, and data platforms; and facilitate engagement among clinical and technical specialists and the various varieties of stakeholders making America's weather offerings.

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First, the effects of GHG emissions can take 20 Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. 3 Observed (black curve) and projected (colored curves) changes in global CO2 emissions (left, in gigatons of carbon) and atmospheric CO2 concentrations (right) for four illustrative scenarios of future emissions. SOURCE: USGCRP, Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States, eds. T. R. Karl, J. M. Melillo, and T. C. Peterson (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2009) and model projections from ­CMIP3-A (G.

All rights reserved. 6°F). This target is often stated to be equivalent to limiting global atmospheric CO2 concentrations to no more than 450 ppm. Because of uncertainties in climate sensitivity, however, this is not a precise relationship. , the sum of all emissions over time). How much greenhouse gas can be emitted and still keep the global temperature rise below 2°C? b Based on this relationship, it is estimated that keeping global temperature rise within 2°C requires limiting cumulative emissions to approximately 4000 billion tons of CO2.

In any of these cases, it would be prudent to post lookouts to learn as much as possible about the risks ahead, to constantly evaluate the ship’s environment and performance, and to be prepared to change course if needed, knowing that evasive maneuvers take time. The captain, in short, faces a problem of risk management. America’s climate choices are not, of course, made by one “captain,” but by decision makers at all levels of society—from the President and Congress, to state and local leaders, to individual households and business owners.

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America's Climate Choices by National Research Council, Division on Earth and Life Studies, Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate, Committee on America's Climate Choices

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