By N. A. Simmons
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Additional resources for An Introduction to Microbiology for Nurses
They are used in laboratories and for general disinfecting purposes. M a n y are caustic, producing burns if they come into contact with the skin. Derivatives of this group of compounds such as chlorxylenol (Dettol), which are non-irritant, are less effective disinfectants. C H L O R H E X I D I N E ('Hibitane') and H E X A C H L O R A PHENE are BISPHENOLS. Chlorhexidine has consider- 52 Microbiology for Nurses able antibacterial activity, and proves an excellent alternative to alcoholic iodine as a skin disinfectant.
This is sometimes k n o w n as 'pasteurisation'. This method uses water at only 70°C for 20 minutes. This treatment will kill the majority of bacterial cells, but of course will not kill spores. Using this method a calculated risk is taken: the risk that spores, if present, might cause infection in the urinary tract. Infections of the urinary tract with spore-bearing organisms are very u n c o m m o n and so the risk is generally considered to be justified. Sterilisation by moist heat at temperatures greater than 100°C is carried out in an autoclave.
If serum antibody is collected from a group in normal adults it will contain some antibody against most of the c o m m o n infective diseases of childhood. T h e purified antibody preparation is k n o w n as 'gamma globulin'. This is used to produce temporary protection against the c o m m o n infectious diseases in seriously ill and susceptible patients, and in protection against one type of infective hepatitis, hepatitis A (p. 130). The acquired immunity described above is dependent upon the production of antibodies and is called ' A N T I B O D Y M E D I A T E D I M M U N I T Y ' .
An Introduction to Microbiology for Nurses by N. A. Simmons