By Richard J. Borg and G. J. Dienes (Auth.)
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Extra info for An Introduction to Solid State Diffusion
Aside from marker movement experiments, there now exists an over whelming number of independent methods, such as quenching and dilation experiments from which the validity of the vacancy mechanism can be inferred. However, this will become almost self-evident after the discussion of the activation energy for diffusion. More evidence of the role played by vacancies in diffusion processes is shown in Fig. 5. Here it has been demonstrated that the number of cation vacancies in FeS increases with decreasing concentration of iron which requires an increase in the overall vacancy concentration and a corresponding linear increase in the diffusion coefficient.
A. Quenching T h e most common technique applied to metals for the measurement of vacancy concentrations is to quickly quench a wire made from the material of interest from a succession of temperatures and measure the change in electrical resistance at liquid He temperature, which is proportional to the change in vacancy concentration, which in turn is a function of the initial annealing temperature. Fig. 3 is a schematic drawing of the essential features of an apparatus suitable for making such measurements.
Experimental Methods 37 Appendix B, then one can apply simple first order kinetics to derive, say, the enthalpy of defect formation. Taking single equilibrium vacancies for our example and assuming no dissociation, after trapping we write for the disintegration rate of the trapped positrons ~ = <°Χ ν λ (2-8) Χ where λ , is the specific rate or decay constant which is the reciprocal of the m e a n lifetime of trapped positrons, o is the energy averaged cross-section for trapping, and X is the mol fraction of vacancies.
An Introduction to Solid State Diffusion by Richard J. Borg and G. J. Dienes (Auth.)